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Learn More
In Learn More the National Geographic magazine team shares some of its best sources and other information to expand your knowledge of our featured subjects. Special thanks to the Research Division.

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Archaeology Magazine
In 2001 Archaeology magazine featured ancient Abydos in a two-issue report on recent excavations. Find abstracts of some of the articles here, written by experts such as Matthew Adams, David O'Connor, William Kelly Simpson, Brenda Baker, and Cheryl Ward.

Djer's Tomb
The history of Djer's tomb is explained in detail, from the origins of the tomb's links to Osiris and the growing import of the tomb in the Osiris resurrection festival to Amélineau's and Petrie's excavations of the tomb. A diagram of the tomb and its subsidiary burials helps flesh out the site.

Development of the Royal Mortuary Complex
This detailed document by National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Zahi Hawass describes chapter by chapter the evolution of Egyptian royal mortuary buildings. Particularly relevant to the Abydos story are the chapters "The Pyramid Shape and its Function," "Architectural Components of the Pyramid Complex," and "The Early Pyramids: From Narmer to Snofru."

National Geographic's Hieroglyphs Translator
Want to see your name or compose a message in hieroglyphs? Use our translator to write your own Ancient Egyptian message. Then print it our or send to a friend.


Baines, John, and Jaromir Malek. Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt. Checkmark Books, 2000.

Ikram, Salima. Death and Burial in Ancient Egypt. Pearson, 2003.

Shaw, Ian, ed. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press, 2000.

Tiradritti, Francesco, ed. The Treasures of the Egyptian Museum. American University in Cairo Press, 1999.

Ward, Cheryl A. "Sacred and Secular: Ancient Egyptian Ships and Boats." Monographs New Series, No. 5. Archaeological Institute of America, 2000.

Wilkinson, Richard H. The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames and Hudson, 2003.

Wilkinson, Richard H. The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt. Thames and Hudson, 2000.

NGS Resources

Hawass, Zahi. Hidden Treasures of Ancient Egypt: Unearthing the Masterpieces of Egyptian History. National Geographic Books, 2004.

"Treasures of Egypt." National Geographic, 2003.

Zivie, Alain. "Mystery of the Sun God's Servant." National Geographic (November 2003), 52-9.

Hawass, Zahi. "Egypt's Forgotten Treasures." National Geographic (January 2003), 74-87.

Carter, Howard. The Tomb of Tutankhamen. National Geographic Books, 2003.

Williams, A. R. "Death on the Nile." National Geographic (October 2002), 2-25.

Morrell, Virginia. "The Pyramid Builders." National Geographic (November 2001), 78-89.

Hawass, Zahi. "Egypt's Hidden Tombs Revealed." National Geographic (September 2001), 32-41.

Gore, Rick. "Pharaohs of the Sun." National Geographic (April 2001), 34-57.

Hawass, Zahi. "Abusir Tomb: Egyptian Priest's Undisturbed Burial Discovered." National Geographic (November 1998), 102-13.