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Learn More
In Learn More the National Geographic magazine team shares some its best sources and other information to expand your knowledge of our featured subjects. Special thanks to the Research Division.

Related Links

American White Pelican Information.
Learn about the American white pelican and its status in Utah from the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources.

West Nile Virus at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge
In 2005 Chase Lake and wildlife officials investigated mass pelican deaths. Get the report.

Medicine Lake Mosquitoes
Find Montana State University's research on mosquitoes that carry West Nile virus around Medicine Lake.

Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge
Learn more about this pelican-rich refuge in Montana.

Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge
This site provides further information about Chase Lake and pelicans.

Birds of North America Online
The Birds of North America provides comprehensive information on every species of bird in America. Subscription required.

Birds of America
John James Audubon's Birds of America (1840-1844) is a fascinating and well-regarded piece of ornithological literature.


Del Hoyo, J. E. A., and others. Handbook of the Birds of the World. (Vol. 1. Lynx Edicions, 1992.

Evans, R. M., and F. L. Knopf. "American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos)." The Birds of North America. The American Ornithologists' Union and The Academy of Natural Sciences, 1993.

Friess, Steve. "In North Dakota, Pelicans Leave a Breeding Ground for Mystery; Birds' Abandonment of Wildlife Refuge Baffles Researchers." Washington Post, July 4, 2004.

Hunter, Adam. "Student Hopes to Save Pelicans." The Leader-Post, January 20, 2006.

Hutchins, M., and others. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Vol. 8-11. Gale Group, 2003.

Johnsgard, Paul A. Paul A. Cormorants, Darters, and Pelicans of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993.

Madden, Elizabeth M., and Marco Restani. "History and Breeding Ecology of the American White Pelican at Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana." Waterbirds (Special Publication 1, 2005), 23-6.

Marra, Peter P., and others. "West Nile Virus and Wildlife." BioScience (May 2004), 393.

Youth, Howard. "West Nile's New World." Zoogoer (March/April 2004).

NGS Resources

Walker, Lewis Wayne. "Pelican Profiles." National Geographic (November 1943), 589-98.