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Learn More
In Learn More the National Geographic magazine team shares some of its best sources and other information to expand your knowledge of our featured subjects. Special thanks to the Research Division.

Related Links

Operation Ruby Throat
Ruby-throated hummingbirds are ubiquitous across central and eastern North America during their summer breeding season. Browse information on ruby throat anatomy, banding programs, and birding expeditions.

The Hummingbird Society
Almost 10 percent of hummingbirds are threatened with extinction. The Hummingbird Society develops efforts to help conserve these tiny marvels of evolution.

The Hummingbird Conservancy
This foundation is involved in conservation of endangered hummingbirds in Colombia.

Southern Arizona Bird Observatory
Arizona has one of the highest numbers of hummingbirds in the United States due to its varied biogeographical regions. Download guides to hummingbird identification, feeding tips, and the best sites for hummingbird viewing in Arizona.

Birds of North America Online
An online version of the indispensable scientific guide to 716 species of birds that nest in North America.

BirdLife International
Guided by a vision to conserve bird species and their habitats across the globe, this international organization produces books and fact sheets on threatened birds and spearheads conservation actions.


Alexander, David. Nature's Flyers: Birds, Insects, and the Biomechanics of Flight. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

Del Hoyo, Josep, Andrew Elliott, and Jordi Sargatal, eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World. BirdLife International, 1992-present.

Mayr, Gerald. "Old World Fossil Record of Modern-Type Hummingbirds." Science (May 7, 2004), 861-4.

Mazariegos H., Luis A. Hummingbirds of Colombia, 2001.

Summers, Adam. "Flexible Feeders." Natural History (September 21, 2005).

Williamson, Sheri. A Field Guide to Hummingbirds of North America. Houghton Mifflin, 2001.

NGS Resources

Arnosky, Jim. Watching Desert Wildlife. National Geographic Books, 1998.

"Just Humming Along…and Clowning Around!" National Geographic World (June 1991), 30-31.

Tyrrell, Esther. "The World's Smallest Bird." National Geographic (June 1990), 72-75.

Hanson, Dennis G. "Winging It—Arizona's Hummingbird Heaven." National Geographic Traveler (Spring 1986), 32-39.

Ewald, Paul W. "Hummingbirds: The Nectar Connection." National Geographic (February 1982), 222-27.

Greenewalt, Crawford H. "The Marvelous Hummingbird Rediscovered." National Geographic (July 1966), 98-101.