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Learn More
In Learn More the National Geographic magazine team shares some of its best sources and other information to expand your knowledge of our featured subjects. Special thanks to the Research Division.

Related Links

Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary
Explore the vast 1,370-square-mile (3,550 square kilometers) marine sanctuary created to protect the whales that visit every year.

Whale Trust
Many of the researchers mentioned in the feature article work with this foundation to study humpbacks.

Hawaii Whale Research Foundation
Learn more about this research group that focuses on humpback social behaviors and is featured in our article.

Humpback Whale Fact Sheet
Read the American Cetacean Society's profile of humpback whales.

Structure of Populations, Levels of Abundance and Status of Humpbacks (SPLASH)
Here are details on the international effort investigating the population structure of humpback whales across the North Pacific.

SPLASH Updates
Cascadia Research, part of the SPLASH project, provides in-depth information about the workings of the project and some progress reports from the field.

Whale Entanglements
The Cetacean Bycatch Resource Center provides a wealth of information on the growing problem of cetacean entanglement in fishing gear.


Calambokidis, John, and others. "Movements and Population Structure of Humpback Whales in the North Pacific." Marine Mammal Science (October 2001), 769-79.

Kaufman, Gregory, and Paul Forestell. Hawaii's Humpback Whales. Pacific Whale Foundation Press, 1986.

Marino, Lori. "Convergence of Complex Cognitive Abilities in Cetaceans and Primates." Brain, Behavior and Evolution (2002), 21-32.

Mobley, Joseph, and others. "Abundance of Humpback Whales in Hawaiian Waters: Results of 1993-2000 Aerial Surveys." Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, September 2001.

Norris, T. F., and others. "Acoustic Detections of Singing Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Eastern North Pacific during their Northbound Migration." The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (July 1999), 506-14.

Perrin, William F., Bernd Wursig, and J. G .M. Thewissen, eds. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, 2002.

Song, Jaymes. "Unprecedented $3.3 Million Humpback Whale Study Launched." Associated Press. February 17, 2004.

SPLASH Progress Report. "Winter/breeding areas 2004." Cascadia Research, 2005.

Weinrich, Mason T., and others. "The Influence of Maternal Lineages on Social Affiliations among Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) on Their Feeding Grounds in the Southern Gulf of Maine." Journal of Heredity (2006), 226-34.

NGS Resources

Gordon, David George. "Voices From the Deep." National Geographic Kids (July/August 2004), 30-31.

Chadwick, Douglas H. "Listening to Humpbacks." National Geographic (July 1999), 110-29.

Earle, Sylvia A. Dive! My Adventures in the Deep Frontier. National Geographic Books, 1999.

Chadwick, Douglas H. "Blue Refuges: U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries." National Geographic (March 1998), 2-31.

Payne, Roger. "New Light on the Singing of Whales." National Geographic (April 1982), 462-77.