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Because of their accommodating nature, mantas today have achieved the dubious status of dive-tourism attractions, luring humans to swim with them in closer-than-optimum quarters. For a species considered near threatened, however, this newfound popularity could literally be a lifesaver. Mantas, with their slow reproductive rate, are vulnerable to overfishing, so a robust tourist trade could give local communities an economic incentive to conserve the fish rather than kill them. It's a delicate balance, though—too many humans could drive mantas out of feeding grounds like Hanifaru Bay.

To avoid that, Stevens has proposed turning the bay into a marine sanctuary. A new Maldives president has vowed to strengthen the archipelago's marine protections, but his government has so far been slow to respond to Stevens's idea. "I'm not ruling out declaring Hanifaru a marine-life sanctuary. But we need to increase our ability to enforce existing environmental laws before creating new protected areas," says Environment Minister Mohamed Aslam.

Meanwhile, scientific knowledge about mantas remains surprisingly thin. Only last year a leading expert proposed splitting the species in two: smaller resident mantas, like those in the Maldives that remain near shore, and larger transient mantas (with wingspans as great as 22 feet) that roam the world's tropical and semitropical oceans. And researchers are just beginning to learn more about those cephalic fins. "When you approach a manta, it will unroll a cephalic fin and wave it back and forth as if it's scanning," says Robert Rubin, a California-based marine biologist who's studied mantas in Mexico for 20 years. "Mantas are essentially flat sharks, and we know some sharks have electrical receptors in their faces. The hypothesis is that mantas use those fins to pick up electrical signals from other animals moving in the water."

In the Maldives, Stevens continues to catalog the local animals. (He's identified more than 1,500 individuals by their unique spot patterns.) His data also record the exact timing of the feedings, information that would be of great value to the local guide industry. Stevens hears the clock ticking, and he is scrambling to organize a self-policing regime among resorts and local guides before dive tourists overrun Hanifaru. "We don't want to ruin what we've got here," he says. If his plan works, Hanifaru Bay will remain a sanctuary for cyclone-feeding manta rays, with just enough room for whale sharks, and humans as well. 

Bruce Barcott covered the wildlife of Svalbard, Norway, in our April issue. Thomas Peschak is chief photographer for the Save Our Seas Foundation.
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