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Researcher Kira Westaway uses a drill to remove a core sample from a stalagmite taken from a cave near Liang Bua. Stalagmites form when rain seeps through rock crevices above a cave and drips onto the floor, where minerals in the water pile up to form calcified mounds. By dating the stalagmite and analyzing its oxygen and carbon composition, Westaway and other scientists working on Flores hope to find clues to the climate and vegetation of the site when Homo floresiensis lived there.

In the past some anthropologists have argued that even in prehistory humans could adapt to new environments by inventing new tools or behaviors rather than by physically evolving, like other creatures. The dwarfing seen on Flores is powerful evidence that humans aren't exempt from natural selection. The discovery of Hobbit is also a hint that still other human variants may once have inhabited remote corners of the world.

In spite of their downsized brains, the little people apparently had sophisticated technology. The fireplaces, charred bones, and thousands of stone tools we found among their remains must have been their handiwork, for we found no sign of modern humans. Stone points, probably once hafted onto spears, turned up among stegodont bones, some of which bore cut marks. The little hominins were apparently hunting the biggest animals around. It was surely a group activity—adult stegodonts, although dwarfed, still weighed more than 800 pounds (363 kilograms), formidable prey for hunters the size of preschool children.

The discovery underscores a puzzle going back to Theodor Verhoeven: How could ancient hominins ever have reached Flores? Was Homo erectus a better mariner than anyone suspected, able to build rafts and plan voyages? And it raises a new and haunting question. Modern humans colonized Australia from mainland Asia about 50,000 years ago, populating Indonesia on their way. Did they and the hobbits ever meet?

There's no sign of modern humans at Liang Bua before 11,000 years ago, following a large volcanic eruption that would have wiped out any Homo floresiensis in the region. But other bands may have hung on elsewhere in Flores. Perhaps modern humans did meet their ancient neighbors before something—maybe a changing environment, maybe competition or conflict with modern humans themselves—spelled the end for the little people. Further excavations on Flores, and on nearby islands that might have had their own hobbits, may settle the question.

In the meantime a clue may come from local folktales about half-size, hairy people with flat foreheads—stories the islanders tell even today. It's breathtaking to think that modern humans may still have a folk memory of sharing the planet with another species of human, like us but unfathomably different.

The Australian Research Council supported this work; your Society will help sponsor future study.

Could this be the face—shown life-size—of a lost human species that stood three feet tall and inhabited an isolated island world?

Synthetic skin and hair bring to life the cast of an 18,000-year-old skull of a female. Her remains were found with those of six other tiny beings on Flores, where they hunted creatures from giant rats to Komodo dragons and made stone tools—all with brains smaller than a chimp's.

Miniature beings with skulls far smaller than our own sprang from an ancient line of human ancestors. How did they reach—and survive on—a remote Indonesian island?

Thomas Sutikna of the Indonesian Centre for Archaeology holds a skull that he and fellow scientists believe represents a new human species, Homo floresiensis. Found in a cave on Flores (map), the species existed alongside modern humans as recently as 13,000 years ago, yet may descend from Homo erectus, which arose some two million years ago.

No ancient humans could have reached flores before big-brained modern people—or so it seemed.

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