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In Learn More the National Geographic magazine team shares some of its best sources and other information to expand your knowledge of our featured subjects. Special thanks to the Research Division.

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 Related Links  
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Did You Know?Did You Know?

Should we be surprised that our distant ancestors may have taken care of each other? Scientists speculate that the early humans living at Dmanisi 1.77 million years ago helped a toothless old man survive by giving him small morsels of food. But acts of altruism are well documented among nonhuman primates. Besides the most common form of altruism—a mother caring for her infant—other examples are grooming, forming coalitions, and food sharing. In several species, such as chimpanzees, macaques, and baboons, orphans have even been adopted by others in their group, especially older siblings. Given our close evolutionary relationship to these primates, perhaps we should have expected all along to find signs of kindness in our early ancestors.
 
—Alice J. Dunn
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Related Links

Dmanisi
www.dmanisi.org.ge
Explore the history, geology, and paleontology of this fascinating archaeological site; view photographs of the dig and some of the artifacts found there.
 
The Smithsonian Institution Human Origins Program
www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins
Learn more about human ancestors at this informative website, where you can visit the Hall of Human Ancestors, read FAQ's about paleoanthropology, or ask a researcher your own question.
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Bibliography

DeGusta, David. "Aubesier 11 Is Not Evidence of Neanderthal Conspecific Care." Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 45 (2003), 91-4.
 
Delson, Eric, and others, eds. Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory. Garland Publishing Inc., 2000.
 
Gabunia, Leo, and others. "Earliest Pleistocene Hominid Cranial Remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: Taxonomy, Geological Setting, and Age," Science (12 May 2000), 1019-25.
 
Jurmain, Robert, and others. Introduction to Physical Anthropology, 10th edition. Wadsworth, 2005.
 
Lebel, Serge, and others. "Comparative Morphology and Paleobiology of Middle Pleistocene Human Remains From the Bau de l'Aubesier, Vaucluse, France." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (September 25, 2001), 11097-102.
 
Lordkipanidze, David, and others. "An Edentulous Hominin Skull from Dmanisi, Georgia." Submitted to Nature. Under review.

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NGS Resources

Gore, Rick. "Georgian Skull." National Geographic (August 2002).

Lange, Karen E. "Meet Kenya Man." National Geographic (October 2001), 84-9.
 
Gore, Rick. "
The Dawn of Humans: Who Were the First Americans?" National Geographic (December 2000), 40-67.
 
Gore, Rick. "The Dawn of Humans: People Like Us." National Geographic (July 2000), 90-117.
 
Keyser, Andre. "The Dawn of Humans: New Finds in South Africa." National Geographic (May 2000), 76-83.
 
Berger, Lee R. In the Footsteps of Eve: The Mystery of Human Origins. National Geographic Books, 2000.
 
Berger, Lee. "The Dawn of Humans: Redrawing Our Family Tree." National Geographic (August 1998), 90-9.
 
Gore, Rick. "The Most Ancient Americans." National Geographic (October 1997), 92-9.
 
Gore, Rick. "The Dawn of Humans: Tracking the First of Our Kind." National Geographic (September 1997), 92-9.
 
Gore, Rick. "The Dawn of Humans: The First Europeans." National Geographic (July 1997), 96-113.
 
Gore, Rick. "The Dawn of Humans: Expanding Worlds." National Geographic (May 1997), 84-109.
 
Gore, Rick. "The Dawn of Humans: The First Steps." National Geographic (February 1997), 72-99.
 
Johanson, Donald C. "The Dawn of Humans: Face-to-Face with Lucy's Family." National Geographic (March 1996), 96-117.
 
Gore, Rick. "The Dawn of Humans: Neanderthals." National Geographic (January 1996), 2-35.
 
Leakey, Meave. "The Dawn of Humans: The Farthest Horizon." National Geographic (September 1995), 38-51.
 
Weaver, Kenneth. "The Search for Our Ancestors: Stones, Bones, and Early Man." National Geographic (November 1985), 560-623.
 
Green, Michael. "Adventure in Indonesia." National Geographic World (January 1984), 3-9.
 
Morton, W. Brown. "Indonesia Rescues Ancient Borobudur." National Geographic (January 1983), 126-42.

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