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In Learn More the National Geographic magazine team shares some of its best sources and other information to expand your knowledge of our featured subjects. Special thanks to the Research Division.

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The Treaty of Sevres: The break-up of the world's Kurdish population
Iraq was carved into the state it is today by the aftermath of the 1920 Treaty of Sevres, which effectively broke up the Ottoman Empire after its World War I defeat and gave the British control over the new country of Iraq. Though the treaty promised that Kurds would be given their own country, Kurdistan, this dream fell flat. Turkey, another new country determined by the Treaty of Sevres and home to the world's largest population of Kurds, refused to ratify the treaty. Instead the Treaty of Lausanne, a more agreeable treaty for the Turks, was drawn up and ratified in 1923. Since then Kurds have been without a country of their own and consequently have often been at odds with their compatriots.
—Emily Krieger


Related Links

Kurdistan Regional Government
The Kurdistan Regional Government official website has overviews of Iraqi Kurdistan's history and administrative structure, daily news reports, and opinion pieces.

Kurdistan: The Other Iraq
Learn more about Iraqi Kurdistan on this site through multimedia shows and regular updates on the region.   
Human Rights Watch: Iraq
Human Rights Watch documents abuse and its reports are well regarded and frequently cited. The Iraq homepage reports on some of the country's gravest problems: prisoner abuse, women's rights, chemical weapons use, and ethnic cleansing.
U.S. Energy Information Administration Iraq Country Analysis Brief
Find the U.S. government's overview on Iraqi oil—how much, where it is, and who controls it.
Kurdish Media
Visit the website of this UK-based independent Kurdish news provider.
Ed Kashi Photography
Find more of this award-winning photographer's work on his website.


Bird, Christiane. A Thousand Sighs, A Thousand Revolts: Journeys in Kurdistan. Random House, 2004.
Gunter, Michael M. Historical Dictionary of the Kurds. Scarecrow Press, 2004.
Izady, Mehrdad R. The Kurds: A Concise Handbook. Taylor and Francis, 1992.
McDowall, David. A Modern History of the Kurds. I. B. Tauris, 1996.
O'Leary, Brendan, John McGarry, and Khaled Salih, eds. The Future of Kurdistan in Iraq. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005.

NGS Resources

Di Giovanni, Janine. "Reaching for Power: The Shiites of Iraq."  National Geographic (June 2004), 2-35.
Boulat, Alexandra. "Diary of a War." National Geographic (September 2003), 94-119.

Balog, James. "Loaded Landscape." National Geographic Adventure (June/July 2003), 108.

Boulat, Alexandra. "Baghdad Before the Bombs." National Geographic (June 2003), 52-69.

Edwards, Mike W. "The Sum of Its Parts." National Geographic (February 2003), Geographica.

Belt, Don, ed. The World of Islam. National Geographic Books, 2001.

Edwards, Mike W. "Eyewitness Iraq." National Geographic (November 1999), 2-27.

Hitchens, Christopher. "Struggle of the Kurds." National Geographic (August 1992), 32-61.

Woodson, Leroy, Jr. "We Who Face Death." National Geographic (March 1975), 364-87.
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