||Download a map of the Nile River
Abundance amid barrenness, a sliver of floodplain supported civilization along the Nile for more than 3,000 years. Rising annually, the river irrigated and fertilized crops. Surrounding deserts protected Egypt from foreign invaders.
The Nile Valley's Archaeological Sites
Amarna: An Ancient Capital
Egypt's Forgotten Treasures
An exclusive look at Cairo's Egyptian Museum centennial exhibit includes stunning antiquities on display for the first time ever.
Death on the Nile
Probe ancient Egyptian intrigue with author A. R. Williams. Then browse photos and links, and share your thoughts.
The Pyramid Builders
Learn about the people who toiled over the pharaohs' tombs, and browse an online gallery of images.
Egypt's Hidden Tombs Revealed
After 2,600 years the long-sought tombs of a legendary governor and his family are uncovered.
Pharaohs of the Sun
Go back in time as photographer Kenneth Garrett discusses images from the land of the pharaohs.
At the Tomb of Tutankhamun
On February 1923 National Geographic sent reporter Maynard Owen Williams to Egypt. His mission: Get a peek at Tut's tomb. It wasn't easy.
Secrets of Egypt
Who built the Pyramids? How old are they? How did they originally look? Find out via photos, diagrams, maps, and more.
Mysteries of EgyptMovie Preview
Explore Egypt with screen legend Omar Sharif, who stars in National Geographic's first IMAX film.
How to Make a Mummy
Learn all about mummification on this site.
Make a Model Tomb
Make a replica of an Egyptian tomb complete with a mummy case, wall paintings,
and treasures for fun or as a group project.
Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
See how much you know about ancient Egypt by tackling this brainteaser quiz.
Three Queens of Egypt
Read about Cleopatra, Hatshepsut, and Nefertiti.
Pyramids: The Inside Story
Grab a flashlight and explore the depths of the Pyramids on an interactive tour.
Secrets of the Pharaohs
Step into Tutankhamun's burial chamber, explore the Great Pyramid, and learn how embalmers mummified the pharaohs.
Egyptian Museum Collection
Explore the museum's collection of statues, jewels, and coffins from Egypt's earliest kings through the Greco-Roman Period. The famous gold room reflects the magnificence of young King Tutankhamun's reign.
Egyptian Museum Tour
Take a photo tour of the museum's galleries and many of its treasures.
Egypt's Ministry of Tourism
Discover Bubastis, center of the cult of the cat goddess, Bastet, and many of the other ancient places across Egypt where the Egyptian Museum's centennial exhibit artifacts originated.
The Plateau: Official Website of Dr. Zahi Hawass
Dr. Zahi Hawass, secretary general of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities and director of the Giza Pyramids Excavation, is also a National Geographic Society explorer-in-residence. Read about his many spectacular discoveries at Giza and elsewhere in Egypt.
Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids
This site includes information on pyramid complexes, tombs of officials, royalty, objects used in daily life, and more.
The Sphinx and the Pyramids: 100 Years of American Archaeology at Giza
The Harvard Semitic Museum is home to this exploration of American excavations at Giza.
Animal Mummy Project in the Egyptian Museum
Learn how and why thousands of animals were mummified in the land of the pharaohsboth as pets and as offerings to the gods.
The Egyptian Book of the Dead
Read the hymns and incantations written on the tomb walls of royalty and the rich to ensure an easy trip through underworld dangers to a glorious afterlife.
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Clayton, Peter A. The Rediscovery of Ancient Egypt. Thames and Hudson, 1982.
Edwards, I. E. S. The Pyramids of Egypt. The Viking Press, 1972.
Edwards, I. E. S. Tutankhamun: His Tomb and Its Treasures. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1976.
Freed, Rita, Yvonne J. Markowitz, and Sue H. D'Auria, eds. Pharaohs of the Sun. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1999.
Ikram, Salima. Death and Burial in Ancient Egypt, Longman Group, 2003.
Ikram, Salima, and Dodson, Aidan. The Mummy in Ancient Egypt. Thames and Hudson, 1998.
James. T. G. H. Tutankhamun. Friedman/Fairfax, 2000.
Lauer, Jean-Phillippe. Saqqara, the Royal Cemetery of Memphis. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976.
Lehner, Mark. The Complete Pyramids. Thames and Hudson, 1997.
Reeves, Nicholas. Ancient Egypt: The Great Discoveries. Thames and Hudson, 2000.
Reeves, Nicholas. The Complete Tutankhamun. Thames and Hudson, 1990.
Reeves, Nicholas, and Richard H Wilkinson. The Complete Valley of the Kings. Thames and Hudson, 1996.
Rice, Michael. Who's Who in Ancient Egypt. Routledge, 1999.
Romer, John. Valley of the Kings. Henry Holt, 1981.
Strouhal, Eugen. Life of the Ancient Egyptians. University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.
Tiradritti, Francesco, ed. Egyptian Treasures From the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Harry N. Abrams, 1999.
Wilkinson, Richard H. The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames and Hudson, 2003.
Wilkinson, Richard H. The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt. Thames and Hudson, 2000.
Sloan, Christopher. Bury the Dead: Tombs, Corpses, Mummies, Skeletons, and Rituals. National Geographic Books, 2002.
Supples, Kevin. Egypt. National Geographic Books, 2002.
Price, Sean. "Treasures of the Tomb," National Geographic Kids (November 2002), 20-23.
Williams, A. R. "Death on the Nile," National Geographic (October 2002), 2-25.
Berger, Gilda, and Melvin Berger. Mummies of the Pharaohs: Exploring the Valley of the Kings. National Geographic Books, 2001.
Fagan, Brian. Egypt of the Pharaohs. National Geographic Books, 2001.
Gore, Rick. "Pharaohs of the Sun," National Geographic (April 2001), 34-57.
Hawass, Zahi. "Egypt's Hidden Tombs Revealed," National Geographic (September 2001), 32-41.
"World Wonders," National Geographic Traveler (October 1999), 248-49.
Webster, Donovan. "Valley of the Mummies," National Geographic (October 1999), 76-87.
Harris, Stephen L., and others. The Wonders of the World, National Geographic Books, 1998.
Hawass, Zahi. "Abusir Tomb," National Geographic (November 1998), 102-13.
Weeks, Kent R. "Valley of the Kings," National Geographic (September 1998), 2-33.
Who Built the Pyramids? National Geographic Videos, 1992.
El-Baz, Farouk. "Finding a Pharaoh's Funeral Bark," National Geographic (April 1988), 512-33.
Miller, Peter. "Riddle of the Pyramid Boats", National Geographic (April 1988), 534-50.
Eigeland, Tor. "Splendors in StoneóMonuments of Ancient Egypt," National Geographic Traveler (Winter 1984/85), 110-28.
Peck, William H., Karl W. Butzer, and others. Ancient Egypt: Discovering its Splendors. National Geographic Books, 1978.
Hall, Alice J. "Legacy of a Dazzling Past?" National Geographic (March 1977), 292-311.
Caffery, Jefferson. "Fresh Treasures from Egypt's Ancient Sands," National Geographic (November 1955), 611-50.
Williams, Maynard Owen. "At the Tomb of Tutankhamun: An Account of the Opening of the Royal Egyptian Sepulcher Which Contained the Most Remarkable Funeral Treasures Unearthed in Historic Times," National Geographic (May 1923), 461-508.
Baikie, James. "The Resurrection of Ancient Egypt," National Geographic (September 1913), 957-1020.
Coburn, Camden M. "The Sacred Ibis Cemetery and Jackal Catacombs at Abydos," National Geographic (September 1913), 957-1020.