Published: June 2003
Learn More
In Learn More the National Geographic magazine team shares some of its best sources and other information to expand your knowledge of our featured subjects. Special thanks to the Research Division.
Related Links

Baghdad Museum Project
Take a virtual  tour of the Iraq Museum. This site, created after the museum was looted in April 2003, posts a history of Iraq, news of the museum's collection, and Web links.

DefenseLINK Find photos, news, and Web links  about Iraq on the website of the United States Department of Defense.

ReliefWeb Follow humanitarian efforts in Iraq and other countries in crisis  on this site produced by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.


Fromkin, David. A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East. Henry Holt and Company, 1989.

Goldschmidt, Arthur, Jr.  A Concise History of the Middle East, 7th ed. Westview Press, 2002.

Mackey, Sandra. The Reckoning: Iraq and the Legacy of Saddam Hussein. W. W. Norton and Company, 2002.

Weit, Gaston. Baghdad: Metropolis of the Abbasid Caliphate. Trans. Seymour Feiler. University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.

NGS Resources

Edwards, Mike. "Eyewitness Iraq," National Geographic (November 1999), 2-27.

Severy, Merle. "Iraq: Crucible of Civilization," National Geographic (May 1991), 102-15.

Ellis, William S. "New Face of Baghdad: Iraq at War,"  National Geographic (January 1985), 80-109.