Published: October 2005
Learn More
In Learn More the National Geographic magazine team shares some of its best sources and other information to expand your knowledge of our featured subjects. Special thanks to the Research Division.

Related Links

Elephant Dung Paper
That's right. Paper made out of elephant poop. Where did the idea come from? How does it work? You can find out here, with lots of pictures. After visiting this site, you can impress your friends with a number of random, but interesting, dung facts.

Elephant Nature Park
Sangduen "Lek" Chailert's Elephant Nature Park in northern Thailand is a haven for 20 elephants, whose biographies can be read here.

National Elephant Institute (NEI)
NEI's mission is to preserve knowledge about elephants and to pass it on to a new generation of mahouts. Visitors to NEI can get their own insights into the elephant-mahout relationship by signing up for a day or two of training.


Baker, Iljas, and Masakazu Kashio, editors. Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 2003.

Chadwick, Douglas H. The Fate of the Elephant. Sierra Club, 1992.

Fahn, James David. A Land on Fire: The Environmental Consequences of the Southeast Asian Boom. Westview, 2003.

Hart, Benjamin L., and Lynette A. Hart. "Fly Switching by Asian Elephants: Tool Use to Control Parasites." Animal Behaviour (July 1994), 35-45.

Hirsch, Philip, editor. Seeing Forests for Trees: Environment and Environmentalism in Thailand. Silkworm Books, 1997.

Jepson, Paul, and Susan Canney. The State of Wild Asian Elephant Conservation in 2003.

Lair, Richard C. Gone Astray: The Care and Management of the Asian Elephant in Domesticity. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1997.

Leimgruber, Peter, and others. "Fragmentation of Asia's Remaining Wildlands: Implications for Asian Elephant Conservation."

Animal Conservation (vol. 6, 2003), 347-59.

Scigliano, Eric. Love, War, and Circuses: The Age-Old Relationship Between Elephants and Humans. Houghton Mifflin, 2002.

Srikosamatara, Sompoad, and Warren Y. Brockelman. "Conservation of Protected Areas in Thailand: A Diversity of Problems, a Diversity of Solutions." In Making Parks Work: Strategies for Preserving Tropical Nature, eds. Terborgh, John, and others. Island Press, 2002.

Stiles, Daniel N. "Ivory Carving in Thailand."

Sukumar, Raman. Living Elephants: Evolutionary Ecology, Behavior and Conservation. Oxford University Press, 2003.

Tourism Authority of Thailand. "A New Chapter for the Thai Elephant and Its Mahout: The Search for Solutions."

NGS Resources

Macdonald, Phil and Carl Parkes. The National Geographic Traveler: Thailand. National Geographic Books, 2001.

Grove, Noel. "The Many Faces of Thailand." National Geographic (February 1996), 82-105.

Chadwick, Douglas H. "Elephants—Out of Time, Out of Space." National Geographic (May 1991), 2-49.

Payne, Katharine. "Elephant Talk." National Geographic (August 1989), 264-77.

Schultheis, Rob. "Bangkok." National Geographic Traveler (March/April 1989), 42-60.

McDowell, Bart. "Thailand: Luck of a Land in the Middle." National Geographic (October 1982).

Graves, William. "Bangkok, City of Angels." National Geographic (July 1973), 96-129.