Published: August 2006
Learn More
In Learn More the National Geographic magazine team shares some its best sources and other information to expand your knowledge of our featured subjects. Special thanks to the Research Division.

Related Links

Ant Insights
Scott Powell, a scientist specializing in army ants, shares information and photos of various army ant species.

Barro Colorado Island
The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute provides information and resources about Barro Colorado Island, where the photographs in the article were shot.

Ant Lab
This is the website of army ant specialist and National Geographic grantee Michael Kaspari of the University of Oklahoma.

New World Army Ants
Go here for general information about army ants.

This website is devoted to the photography of various ant species.

Ants Can't Hurt You, Can They?
Here is a short article by Dale Morris about army ants from the BBC Nature website.

This is a general information website about the world's ant species.

Ant Mandibles
Learn more about the highly diverse shapes, sizes, and functions of ant jaws.


Ebersole, Rene. "Embedded Troops." National Wildlife Magazine (August/September 2005).

Franks, Nigel R. "Army Ants: Collective Intelligence." American Scientist (March/April 1989), 139–45.

Franks, Nigel R. "Reproduction, Foraging Efficiency and Worker Polymorphism in Army Ants." In Experimental Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology: In Memoriam Karl von Frisch, 1886-1982, ed. M. Lindauer. Sinauer Associates, 1985.

Franks, Nigel R. "A New Method for Censusing Animal Populations: The Number of Eciton burchellii Army Ant Colonies on Barro Colorado Island, Panama." Oecologia (February 1982), 266-68.

Gotwald, William H. Army Ants. Cornell University Press, 1995.

Holldobler, Bert, and Edward O. Wilson. The Ants. Harvard University Press, 1990.

Holldobler, Bert, and Edward O. Wilson. Journey to the Ants. Harvard University Press, 1994.

Kaspari, Michael, and Sean O'Donnell. "High Rates of Army Ant Raids in the Neotropics and Implications for Ant Colony and Community Structure." Evolutionary Ecology Research (2003), 933–39.

Moreau, Corrie S,. and others. "Phylogeny of the Ants: Diversification in the Age of Angiosperms." Science (April 7, 2006), 101-104.

Schneirla, T. C. "Raiding and other Outstanding Phenomena in the Behavior of Army Ants." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States (March 1934), 316-21.

NGS Resources

Wilson, Edward O. "From Ants, Onward." National Geographic (May 2006), 32.

Gordon, David George. "Down on the Ant Farm." National Geographic World (January 2000), 19-21, 26.

Hall, Alice J., and Bert Holldobler. "Ways of the Ant." National Geographic (June 1984), 778-813.