Published: November 2006
Learn More
In Learn More the National Geographic magazine team shares some of its best sources and other information to expand your knowledge of our featured subjects. Special thanks to the Research Division.

Related Links

70 South
Read about all things Antarctic at this independent news and information site.

Seal Conservation Society
Browse profiles of the 33 species of pinnipeds—seals, sea lions, and walrus—and learn about efforts to conserve their numbers and habitats.

Underwater Field Guide to Ross Island and McMurdo Sound
View photos and species descriptions of the surprising number of bright and beautiful creatures that inhabit the frigid seas of Antarctica.

International Penguin Conservation Work Group
Learn about the biology and status of the world's 17 species of penguins.

British Antarctic Survey
Get information on the geology, wildlife, exploration, and meteorology of the coldest and driest continent.

Australian Antarctic Division
Read about Antarctic research programs, view scenes from the photo exhibition or webcam, and hear wildlife sounds.


Bonner, W. Nigel. The Natural History of Seals. Facts on File, 1990.

Davis, Lloyd Spencer, and Martin Renner. Penguins. Yale University Press, 2003.

Hall-Aspland, Sophie, Tracey Rogers, and Rhondda Canfield. "Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Analysis Reveals Seasonal Variation in the Diet of Leopard Seals." Marine Ecology Progress Series (vol. 305, 2005), 249-59.

McGonigal, David, and Lynn Woodworth. Antarctica and the Arctic: The Complete Encyclopedia. Firefly Books, 2001.

NGS Resources

Matthiessen, Peter. End of the Earth: Voyages to Antarctica. National Geographic Books, 2003.

Smith, Roff Martin. "Frozen Under." National Geographic (December 2001), 2-35.

Hooper, Meredith. Antarctic Journal: The Hidden Worlds of Antarctica's Animals. National Geographic Books, 2000.

Alexander, Caroline. "Shackleton: Epic of Survival." National Geographic (November 1998), 82-101.

Heacox, Kim. Antarctica: The Last Continent. National Geographic Books, 1998.