Published: February 2007
Learn More
In Learn More the National Geographic magazine team shares some of its best sources and other information to expand your knowledge of our featured subjects. Special thanks to the Research Division.

Related Links

Tangled Roots
Enter here and you'll never want to leave the beauty of the mangrove world. Sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation, the site provides a virtual tour of Mangal Cay, a mangrove island in the Caribbean.

Mangroves: The Roots of the Sea
The American Museum of Natural History has a site dedicated to mangroves with interactive videos and a discussion of these plants' importance to the planet.

This World Wildlife Fund website is full of information on Earth's largest single tract of mangroves; it also provides useful links to outside resources.


Mastaller, Michael. Mangroves: The Forgotten Forest Between Land and Sea. Tropical Press, 1997.

Ong, Jin Eong. "The Hidden Costs of Mangrove Services: Use of Mangroves in Shrimp Aquaculture." June 4, 2002.

Spalding, Mark, François Blasco, and Colin Field, eds. World Mangrove Atlas. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, 1997.

Spalding, M. "Mangroves," Forest Ecosystems. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 2004.

Tomlinson, P. B. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, 1986.

NGS Resources

Jerome, Kate Boehm. Exploring Ecosystems. National Geographic Books, 2006.

Liittschwager, David, and Susan Middleton. Archipelago: Portraits of Life in the World's Most Remote Island Sanctuary. National Geographic Books, 2005.

Finton, Nancy. Ecosystems. National Geographic Books, 2004.

Laman, Tim. "Borneo's Proboscis Monkeys Smell Trouble." National Geographic (August 2002), 100-17.

Gore, Rick. "Wild Nursery of the Mangroves." National Geographic (May 1977), 668-89.

Idyll, Clarence P. "Shrimp Nursery: Science Explores New Ways to Farm the Sea." National Geographic (May 1965), 636-59.