Published: April 2007
Learn More
In Learn More the National Geographic magazine team shares some of its best sources and other information to expand your knowledge of our featured subjects. Special thanks to the Research Division.

Related Links

Davey D's Hip Hop Corner
Explore hip-hop journalist and historian Davey D's site for current articles, music reviews, and interviews.

Art Crimes: The Writing on the Wall
Visit one of the largest graffiti sites on the Web, with archives going back to 1994 and featuring art from hundreds of cities around the world.

Ishkur's Electronic Music Guide
Spend hours exploring this comprehensive tour of the world of electronica. For a hip-hop look—and listen—go to "Breakbeat."

Funk Styler
Watch demonstrations and battles of early hip-hop dance styles such as "popping" and "locking."

African Hip Hop
From Dakar to Durban, get the latest news on the hip-hop scenes and artists across Africa. Includes an online African hip-hop radio station.

Center for Black Music Research
This research center at Columbia College Chicago documents, preserves, and disseminates information about the common roots of black music in all parts of the world. Get definitions of various black music styles by clicking on the "musical styles and genres" link.


Burnim, Mellonee V., and Portia K. Maultsby, eds. African American Music: An Introduction. Routledge, 2006.

Durand, Alain-Philippe. Black, Blanc, Beur: Rap Music and Hip-Hop Culture in the Francophone World. Scarecrow Press, 2002.

Fricke, Jim, and Charlie Ahearn. Yes Yes Y'all: The Experience Music Project Oral History of Hip-Hop's First Decade. Da Capo Press, 2002.

George, Nelson. Hip Hop America. Penguin, 2005.

Gioia, Ted. The History of Jazz. Oxford University Press, 1997.

Keyes, Cheryl. Rap Music and Street Consciousness. University of Illinois Press, 2002.

Light, Alan, ed. The Vibe History of Hip Hop. Three Rivers Press, 1999.

Ramsey, Guthrie P., Jr. Race Music: Black Cultures from Bebop to Hip-Hop. University of California Press, 2003.

Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans, 3rd edition. W. W. Norton & Company, 1997.

NGS Resources

Newman, Cathy. "Shall We Dance?" National Geographic (July 2006), 104-25.

Beckwith, Carol, and Angela Fisher. Faces of Africa: Thirty Years of Photography. National Geographic Books, 2004.

"Breaking to the Beat." National Geographic World (October 1984), 4-9.