Published: August 2007
Learn More
In Learn More the National Geographic magazine team shares some of its best sources and other information to expand your knowledge of our featured subjects. Special thanks to the Research Division.
Related Links

Steve Yanoviak's Home Page
Learn more about incredible gliding ants and other research by tropical arthropod ecologist Steve Yanoviak.

Stenamma alas
Get all the details from Jack Longino about the ant Stenamma alas. See close-up photographs of the ants and ant nests and link to the Ants of Costa Rica home page.

Cleaner Fish Do Clean
Explore the world of cleaner fish and coral reef ecology and learn more about the behavior that is also found in Dorymyrmex ants.

This comprehensive website has a searchable database of ant genera and species around the world, including photographs of many of them.


Brandao, C. R. F., and others. "Thaumatomyrmex Strips Millipedes for Prey: A Novel Predatory Behaviour in Ants, and the First Case of Sympatry in the Genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Insect Science (1991), 335-44.

Grutter, Alexandra S. "Cleaner Fish Really Do Clean." Nature (April 22, 1999), 672-3.

Holldobler, Bert, and Edward O. Wilson. The Ants. Belknap Press, 1990.

Longino, John T. "Complex Nesting Behavior by Two Neotropical Species of the Ant Genus Stenamma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Biotropica (2005), 670-75.

Patek, S. N., and others. "Multifunctionality and Mechanical Origins: Ballistic Jaw Propulsion in Trap-jaw Ants." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (August 22, 2006), 12787-92.

Poulin, Robert, and Alexandra S. Grutter. "Cleaning Symbioses: Proximate and Adaptive Explanations." BioScience (July/August 1996), 512-17.