Published: September 2007
National Geographic
Related Links

Middle East Institute
Visit the website of the nonpartisan Middle East Institute and click on "Countries and Organizations" to find quick facts, in-depth articles, and links to additional information about Pakistan.

Pakistan Virtual Library
A guide to Internet resources on Pakistan and Pakistanis, this website provides links to dozens of sites that focus on business, cultural institutions, government and law, history, media and popular arts, and more.

Story of Pakistan>
Pakistan's first leader, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, once said that "the story of Pakistan … is the very story of great human ideals, struggling to survive in the face of odds and difficulties." Explore Pakistan's history and discuss the latest "hot issues" at this site.

Human Rights Commission of Pakistan
Since 1986 the independent, nonprofit Human Rights Commission of Pakistan has struggled to spread awareness of human rights abuses. Follow its efforts to prevent violations of human rights and to provide legal and other assistance to the victims.

Edhi Foundation
Among its many relief efforts, the Edhi Foundation provides ambulance services to over a million people a year and houses some 6,000 destitute or mentally ill Pakistanis. Learn how you can help by visiting this website and clicking on "Donations."

Cohen, Stephen Philip. The Idea of Pakistan. Brookings Institution Press, 2004.

Coll, Steve. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, From the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin Press, 2004.

Haqqani, Husain. Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005.

Hussain, Zahid. Frontline Pakistan: The Struggle With Militant Islam. Columbia University Press, 2007.

International Crisis Group. "Pakistan: Madrasas, Extremism and the Military." Asia Report No. 36, July 29, 2002. Available online at

Jones, Owen Bennett. Pakistan: Eye of the Storm. Yale University Press, 2003.

Renard, John. Historical Dictionary of Sufism. Scarecrow Press, 2005.

Siddiqa, Ayesha. Military Inc.: Inside Pakistan's Military Economy. Pluto Press, 2007.
NGS Resources

McGirk, Tom. "Tracking the Ghost of bin Laden in the Land of the Pashtun." National Geographic (December 2004), 2-27.

Pelton, Robert Young. "Into the Land of bin Laden." Adventure (April 2004), 74-8, 82-8.

Newman, Cathy. "Special Report: A Life Revealed." National Geographic (April 2002).

Edwards, Mike. "Central Asia Unveiled." National Geographic (February 2002), 108-25.

Simons, Lewis M. "Kashmir: Trapped in Conflict." National Geographic (September 1999), 2-29.